Teaching and researching religions, languages, literatures, films, and ecology of India: http://philosophy.unt.edu/people/faculty/pankaj-jain

Dr. Pankaj Jain

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Dr. Pankaj Jain is the author of Dharma and Ecology of Hindu Communities: Sustenance and Sustainability (May 2011), which won the 2012 DANAM Book Award and the 2011 Uberoi Foundation Book Award. His 2nd book is Science and Socio-Religious Revolution in India: Moving the Mountains (Routledge 2017).

He is co-founder of American Academy of Indic Studies (www.AAIndicStudies.org) and is the editor of the Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Springer).

He is Associate Professor in the department of Philosophy & Religion. He has published articles in journals such as Religious Studies Review, Worldviews, Religion Compass, Journal of Vaishnava Studies, Union Seminary Quarterly Review, and the Journal of Visual Anthropology. He also contributes to the Huffington Post, Washington Post’s forum On Faith, and Patheos.
 
His research has been supported by the Fulbright fellowship and by the Wenner Gren grant. His teaching interests include Religion and Ecology, Indian films, and Religions and Cultures of South Asia and South Asian Diaspora in North America. Before joining UNT, he taught at North Carolina State University, Rutgers, Kean, and New Jersey City University. Interested in connecting ancient practices with contemporary issues, he is exploring the connections between religious traditions and sustainability in Hindu and Jain communities in India and the Indian diaspora. He serves as a research affiliate with Harvard University’s Pluralism Project, as scholar-in-residence with GreenFaith, as a board member of the Society for Hindu Christian Studies, and as a board member of the Executive Advisory Council of Hindu American Seva Charities, an NGO working with the White House Office for the faith-based initiatives. He has presented his research at Columbia University, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth, University of South Florida, Florida International University, University of Toledo, Texas Christian University, High Point University, Lancaster University (UK), Andhra University (India), Univ of Rajasthan (India), and several conferences, high schools, radio and TV stations, temples, churches, Yoga centers, and other community centers.
 
He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Iowa and an M.A. from Columbia University (both in Religious Studies). In his “previous life” he had also earned a B.S. in Computer Science from India and had worked as a software engineer in India and in New Jersey. Dr. Jain is an active member of several academic and community organizations, is fluent in several Indian languages, and has published poems in Hindi. He was born in Rajasthan and had also lived in Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Hyderabad, and Karnatak (in India) and in New Jersey, Iowa, North Carolina, and Texas (in the USA). Some of his papers and articles are at:http://unt.academia.edu/PankajJain/Papers and videos are at http://www.youtube.com/pj2017. The Facebook page for his book is at:https://www.facebook.com/DharmaAndEcology

Tuesday, December 29, 2009

3 Idiots - All is not well

Watched "3 Idiots" - All is not well, more hype than substance, good acting and comedy but poor storyline, especially compared with the earlier films of the director RH and the actor AK. I just could not help compare its story (especially the second half) with really innovative stories of Munna Bhai series, Rang De Basanti, Lagaan, Taare Zameen Pe... Compared with these earlier films of RH and AK, 3 idiots is pretty old wine in new bottle, 3 idiots could not rise beyond the memories of Dil Chahta Hai kind of friendship movies...I had somewhat higher expectations from innovative artists like RH (director) and Aamir Khan. I did like the film 3 idiots, however, it is not a classic in the league of other Aamir films...

Well, just found that I am not alone in my mixed response to the film:
Rajeev Masand of CNN-IBN gave the film three out of five stars and states: "Going home after watching 3 Idiots I felt like I'd just been to my favourite restaurant only to be a tad under-whelmed by their signature dish. It was a satisfying meal, don't get me wrong, but not the best meal I'd been expecting." [38] Noyon Jyoti Parasara of AOL India too criticized the length of the film. " A 20-reeler – ‘3 idiots’ is 3 hours long! By all standards that’s too long a time, especially when the audience has shrinking tolerance level and attention span. It could have easily been shorter had the director preferred editing out some scenes," he remarks.[39] Shubhra Gupta of Indian Express gave 3 out of 5 star and criticized movie saying "The emotional truth that shone through both the ‘Munnabhai’ movies doesn’t come through strongly enough in '3 Idiots'".

Thursday, October 1, 2009

Ghazals on classical raga

Note: MH - Mehdi Hassan, JS, CS - Jagjit & Chitra Singh, GA - Ghulam Ali

Ahir Bhairav
Jab bhi aati hai teri yaad kabhi shaam MH
Hume koi gham MH
O Laagi re - MH

Bageshri
Aapko bhool jaaye hum (CS) mishra kaafi
Kaise kaise log – MH
Dilki baat labope MH
Ab koi baat bhi meri
Ek naye modpe MH

Bahar
Phool hi phool khil uthe - MH

Bhairav
Saamne hai jo use log JS (Bairagi)
Hosh-hasti (mangal) MH
Manzil na de chiraag na de JS

Bhairavi
Phir kisi raah guzar par shayad - JS
Meri tanhaiyon tum hi lagalo mujhko sinese - JS
Yeh dil yeh paagal dil mera (awaargi) - GA
Kabhi neki bhi uske ji men gar aa jaye hai mujhse - GA
Jo bhaje hari ko sada – Bheemsen Joshi
Main khayal hoon – MH
Yaaro kisii qaatil se kabhii pyaar na maa.Ngo MH
Yaaron Kisai Qatil Se MH
Apno ne gham diye MH

Raga Bhankar
Khuli Jo Ankh

Bhimpalashri
Zindagimen to sabhi pyar kiya karte hai - MH
Chupke chupke GA

Bhupali
Duniya kisi ke pyaar main – MH
He Govind, He Gopal, He Dayaal Lal - JS
Tum naa maano magar PU

Bhupeshwari (Jansammohini)
Abke hum bichhde MH
Dard badhkar fugaan na ho jaye CS

Bihag
Wo dil nawaz hai magar MH (with bhinna shadaj)

Bilawal
Yu na mil mujhse khafa ho jaise MH
Wo ke har ahad-e-mohabbat se mukartaa jaaye MH

Charukeshi
Aisa lagta hai zindagi tum ho – CS
Patthar ke khuda - JS
Main khayaal hoon kisi aur ka - JS
Dukh ki laharne chheda hoga - GA

Des
Chadariya jhini re jhini - AJ

Darbari
Hangama hai kyon barpa – GA
Ku ba ku fail gayi MH
Denewale mujhe maujon ki rawani de de – JS
Sunate hain ke mil jaati hai - JS
Jay Radha madhav Jai kunjbihari - JS

Gara
Raghupati raghav raja ram - Bhajan
Thumak chalat ram chandra – Bhajan by Lata
Patta patta boota – MH

Goud
Bhooli bisri chand ummeeden (MH) with Saarang

Jansammohini
Chirag-e-toor jalao (MH)
Jheel main chaand (PU)

Jangla Bhairavi
Khuda kare ki mohabbat – MH

Jayjayvanti
Raghupati raghav raja rama – Bhajan
Dost bankar bhi nahin saath nibhanevala - GA

Jhinjhoti
Sata sata ke hame – MH
Gulon main rang bhare - MH
Tanha tanha mat sochakar - MH

Jog
ye mojazaa bhii muhabbat kabhii dikhaaye mujhe MH

Jogiya
Gazab kiya tere vaadepe – MH

Kaafi
Pyar bhare do MH
chamte chand ko – aawargi GA (with Asavari)
Rafta rafta MH
Kabhi guncha kabhi shola kabhi shabnam JS
Ye haqeeqat hai – CS

Kalawati
Dil men aur to kya rakha hai - GA

Khamaz
Janakinath sahay – Bhajan by Pulaskar
Mohabbat karnewale kam na hoge MH
fiqr hii Thaharii to dil ko fikr-e-Khubaa.N kyo.n na ho MH
Yu zindagi ki raah main MH

Kirwani
Shola tha jal bujha hun – MH
Para para hua pairahan-e-jaan – GA

Lalit
Koi paas aya savere - JS

Malkauns
Kya bhala mujhko parakhne ka nateeza nikla MH
E roshniyo ke shahar bata MH
Mana ke musht-e-khak se badhkar nahin hun main - JS

Marwa
Garmiye Hasrat-e-Nakamse (with Sohni/puriya)

Majh Khamaz
Dil main ek lahar GA

Mand
Naqsh-e-khayal MH
Hum hee main thee na koi baat - maand

Miya Ki Malhar
Ek bas tu hi nahi - MH

Mishra Goud
Aaye kuchh abra kuchh sharab – MH

Pahadi
Dilmen ek lahar si uthi hai abhi - GA
Payoji maine rama ratan dhan payo – Bhajan by Lata
Chalo man – Bhajan by Pulaskar
Baat karni mujhe mushkil – MH
Jawanike heele haya JS
Kaun kahata hai ki mohabbat JS
Suna tha ki wo aayenge anjuman main JS
Badal jayega CS
Jo thake thake se hausle MH

Patdeep
Roshan jamaal e yaar MH

Pilu
Aadmi aadmi ko kya JS
Kaise chhupaau raaz-e-gham MH
Guncha-e-shauq lagaa hai khilne MH

Puriya
Ya devi sarva bhuteshu – Pt Jasraj
Tere khamosh hothose – PU
Ye haqeeqat hai – CS
garmii-e-hasarat-e-naakaam se jal jaate hai.n MH (with marwa sohni)

Rageshri
Ye dhua kaha se – MH
Gulshan gulshan shola – MH
Mujhe tum nazar se - MH

Sarang
Nawajish karam shukriya – MH
Ye kaisi mohabbat – JS

Shivranjani
Jo bhi dukh yaad na tha, yaad aya GA
Teri mehfil se MH

Todi
Jagmen sunder hai do naam, chahe krishna kaho ya ram – AJ
Milkar juda huye JS (Gujari)

Yaman
Ranjish hi sahi, dil hi dukhane ke liye aa - MH
Shola hun bhadakne ki gujarish nahin karta - JS
Tum nahin, gam nahin, sharab nahin – JS
Jal bhi chuke parvane MH

Friday, August 21, 2009

Tweeting the World\'s Longest Poem

Tweeting the World\'s Longest Poem

America is becoming Hindu, says Newsweek story

http://www.newsweek.com/id/212155

"America is not a Christian nation. We are, it is true, a nation founded by Christians, and according to a 2008 survey, 76 percent of us continue to identify as Christian (still, that's the lowest percentage in American history). Of course, we are not a Hindu—or Muslim, or Jewish, or Wiccan—nation, either. A million-plus Hindus live in the United States, a fraction of the billion who live on Earth. But recent poll data show that conceptually, at least, we are slowly becoming more like Hindus and less like traditional Christians in the ways we think about God, our selves, each other, and eternity."


--

Saturday, August 1, 2009

Hindi songs based on classical raga

Raga: Abhogi Kanada
Jiya lage kya karu sajna
Na jaiyo re sautan ghar sainya

Raga: Adana
Manmohan man men ho tumhi - Kaise Kahoon
Jhanak jhanak payal baje - Jhanak Jhanak Payel Baje
Radhike toone bansari choorayee - Bhai Bhai

Raga: Ahir Bhairav
Puchho na kaise maine rain bitai - Meri Surat Teri Aankhen
Koi Lauta de mere – Door gagan ki chhaon main
Vandana karo, archana karo
Ramka gun gaan kariye - Ram Shyam Gun Gaan (Anon film album)
Meri bina tum bin roye - Dekh Kabir Roya
Main to kabse teri sharan men hun - Ram Nagari
Zindagi ko sanvarana hoga - Alaap
Sola barasaki bali umarko salam - Ek Duje Ke Liye
Mai ri mai, kaise jiyun ri - Chala Vahi Desh(non film album)
Apne jeevan ki uljhan ko - Uljhan
Man Anand Anand Chhayo - Vijeta
Waqt karta jo wafa aap hamare hote - Dilne Pukara
Ram teri ganga maili ho gayi... - Ram Teri Ganga Maili
Dhire Dhire Subah Hui He Jag Uthi Jindagi - Haisiyat
Meri galiyonse logonki yari badh gai - Dharmatma
Chalo man jayen ghar apne - Swami Vivekananda
Albela sajan aayo re - Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam
Ruke ruke se qadam – Mausam

Raga: (Alaiya) Bilawal
Jana gana mana - National Anthem
Bhor ayi, gaya andhiyara - Bawarchi
Sare ke sare ga ma ko lekar gate chale - Parichay
Patthar ke sanam
Barbade mohabbat - Laila Majnu
Likhkar tera naam – Laila Majnu

Raga: Asavari
Mujhe galese lagalo bahut udas hun main - Aaj aur Kaal
Piya te kaha - Toofan aur Diya
Chale jana nahin naina milake - Badi Bahen
Likhe jo khat – Kanyadaan
Radha ke to ne bansri churai Taala Sitarkhani Film: Beti Bete
Subah na aayi shaam na aayi – Cha Cha Cha


Raga: Bageshri
Aaye bahaar banke lubhakar chale gaye - Rajahath
Jag dard-e-ishq jag - Anarkali
Radha na bole na bole - Azad
Bedardi dagabaz ja tu nahin balma mora - Bluff Master
Bedardi hua balma
Ja re, beiman tujhe jan liya
Divane tum, divane hum
Shubh ghadi ai re
Chah barbad karegi - Shah Jahan
Jao jao nand ke lala - Rangoli
Chhalak rahi bunden
Aja re, paradesi - Madhumati
Ghadi Ghadi mera dil dhadke – Madhumati
Insaan ka insaan se ho bhaichaara yahi paigaam hamara
Hamse aya na gaya - Dekh Kabir Roya
Poochhta jaa mere marghatse guzarne waley - A Ghazal by Gulam Ali
Chaman men rang-e-bahar utara to maine dekha - A Ghazal by Gulam Ali
Seene main jalan - Gaman
Aapse kya gila – CS (with kaafi)

Raga: Bahar
Re re bahar ayi
Chham chham nachat ayi bahar - Chhaya
Sakal bana gagan chalat puravai - Mamta

Raga: Bairagi
Kisi nazar ko tera intazar aja bhi hai - Aitbaar
Mein ek raja hun - Upahaar

Raga: Barawa
Khai hai re humne kasam - Talash

Raga: Basant
Ketaki, gulab, juhi champaka bana phule - Basant Bahar

Raga: Basant-Bahar
Manki bin matavari baje - Shabaab

Raga: Bibhash
Sanjh dhale gagan tale hum kitane ekaki - Utsav
Neelam ke nabh chhayi - Utsav

Raga: Bhairav
Mohe bhul gaye sanvariya - Baiju Bawra
Sitaronki mahafil
Sun ri pavan, pavan puravaiya - Anuraag
Jaago, Mohan pyare jaago - Jaagte Raho

Raga: Bhairavi
Khilona jaankar - Khilona
Tu hindu banega na – Dhool ka phool
Babul mora, naihar chhooto hi jaaye - Street Singer
Sajna, sajna kahe bhul gaye din pyar ke - Chand Mere Aja
Insaf ka mandir hai, yeh bhagavan ka ghar hai - Amar
Kaise jaun jamunake tir - Devta
Laga chunari men dag - Dil Hi To Hai
Jyotse jyot jagate chalo - Sant Gyaneshwar
Jo bhaje hari ko sada - Bhajan
Tu gangaki mauj - Baiju Bawra
Nas nas men agan
Jab dil hi tut gaya - Shahjehan
Ai diwali, ai diwali - Rattan
Tumhare sang main bhi chalungi
Do hansonka joda bichhad gayo re - Ganga Jamuna
Mere pas ao, nazar to milao
Mai to pyarse teri piya mang sajaungi
Barasat men, hamse mile tum - Barsaat (old)
Dost dost na raha - Sangam
Bol radha bol sangam hoga ke nahin - Sangam
Mera juta hai japani - Shri 420
Ramiya vasta vaiya - Shri 420
Mohabbatki dastan
Suno chhotisi gudiya ki lambi kahani - Seema
Khamosh hai khevanahara mera - Amar
Mori chham chham baje payeliya
Mere ai dil bata - Jhanak Jhanak Payel Baje
Sanvare sanvare - Anuradha (Composed by Ravi Shankar)
Nache man mora magan dhik dha dhigi dhigi - Meri Surat Teri Aankhen
Apki yaad ati rahi, ratbhar - Gaman
Yaha barakha sautaniya ke dvar
Tera jana - Anadi
Tute na dil Tute na - Andaaz (Old)
Ai mere dil kahin aur chal - Daag
Mile sur tera hamara - Doordarshan Sangeet
Kaise samjhaun bade nasamajh ho - Sooraj
Chali gori pi ke milan ko chali
Bhor bhaye panghatpe - Satyam Shivam Sundaram
Jare, jare ud ja re panchhi - Maaya
Dilka khilona haye tut gaya - Goonj Uthi
Jay bolo beiman ki - Beiman
Tumhe aur kya dun main dil ke sivay - Ayee Milan ki Bela
Lage tose naina lage
Mein piya teri - Basant Bahar
Mithe bol bole - Kinara
Mitwa re mitwa purab na jaio - Jawab
Heer ( doli chadhke heer) - Heer Ranjha (old)
Phir kisi raah guzar par shayad - A Ghazal by Jagjit Singh
Meri tanhaiyon tum hi lagalo mujhko sinese - A Ghazal by Jagjit Singh
Yeh dil yeh paagal dil mera (awaargi) - A Ghazal by Gulam Ali
Beshaq mandir masjid todo - Bobby
Bhari duniya men akhir dil ko samajhane kahan jaayen - Do Badan
Hato kaheko juthi banao batiyaan - Manzil
Mata saraswati sharda vidya dayi dayani - Bhajan
Sunai deti hai jiski dhadkan (Zihaal-e-muskeen) - Ghulami
Jiya jale jaan jale nainon tale - Dil Se...
Baaki kuchh bacha to menhagai maar gayi - Roti Kapda aur Makaan
Phool gendava na maaro - Dooj Ka Chaand
Dhanya bhag seva ka avsar paaya - Sur Sangam
Kabhi neki bhi uske ji men gar aa jaye hai mujhse - A Ghazal by Gulam Ali
Mukund Madhav hari Hari bol
Mile jo kadi kadi, ek zanjeer bane - Kasme Wade
Hame tumse pyar kitana – Kudarat
Samjhauta ghamo se karlo - Samjhauta
O Nanhe se farishte - Ek Phool Do Maali
Hai isi main pyar ki - Anpadh
Hum hain mata e koocha e - Dastak
Mujhko is raatki tanhaayee main
Hai isi main pyar ki - Anpadh

Raga: Bhatiyar
Ek ritu aye ek ritu jaye

Raga: Bhimpalashri
Panthi hoon main us path kaa – Door ka rahi
Manbhora hua matavala
Duniyase ji ghabra gaya
Eri main to premdivani - Navbahar
Bansuri bajaye koi
Maine chand aur sitaronki - Chandrakantaa
Ye na thi hamri kismat - Mirza Ghalib
Mein garibonka dil hun vatanki zuban
O nirdayi pritam - Stree (1961)
Bhulya na gaya
Dilke tukade hue aur jigar lut gaya
More manka bavara panchhi
Tum suno suno ghanashyam
Dilmen tuze bithake puja karungi teri - Fakira
Nainon main badra chhaye - Mera Saaya
Tere sadpe balma
Bina madhur madhur kachhu bol
Jhanakar payalaki tose binati kare - Naag Devata
Kahan chali a, mera lutake jiya
Ja dur kahin
Ham giridharake ghar jaun - Meera Bhajan
Samay dire chalo - Rudaali
Zindagimen to sabhi pyar kiya karte hai - A Ghazal by Mehdi Hassan
Om nao Bhagavate Vasudevay - A bhajan by Pandit Jasra
Kismat Se Tum Ham Ko Mile Ho - Pukar
Ae Ajnabi Tu Bhii Kahiin Aawaz De Kahiin Se - Dil Se...
Khiltey Hain Gul Yaha - Sharmilee
O beqarar dil - Khamoshi
Kuch dil ne kaha - Anupama
Tum mile dil khile - Criminal
Naghma-o-sher ki saughaat - Ghazal
Yeh aaine se akele men guftagu kya hai - A ghazal from Hariharan's album 'Kaash'
Hai chaand sitaaron men chamak tere badan ki - A ghazal by Ahmed Hussain -mohmad Hussain
beena madhur madhur kuch bol Singer: Lata

Raga: Bhupali
Luka chhupi – Rang De Basanti
Beete huye lamho ke kasak - Nikaha
Chanda hai tu, mera suraj hai tu - Aradhana
Sayonara, sayonara - Love in Tokyo
Pankh hote to ud ati re - Sehraa
Jyoti kalash chhalake - Bhabhi Ki Chudiyan
Jab nil gagan ki chhaonmen - Amrapali
Achyutam keshavam ram narayanam
Panchhi banu udti firun mast gagan men - Chori Chori
Sanvare rang rachi - Meera Bhajan
Dekha ek khvab to yeh silsile hue - Silsila
In ankhonki mastike mastane hazaron hai - Umrao Jaan
Mana ke musht-e-khak se badhkar nahin hun main - A Ghazal by Jagjit Singh
Jaun tore charan kamal par vari - Sur Sangam
Yeh hava...yeh phiza...aa bhi jaa - Gumraah
Om namah shivay - Bhairavi
Dil hun hun kare - Rudaali
Sansaarki har shay ka - Dhoond
He Govind, He Gopal, He Dayaal Lal - Bhajan by Jagjeet Singh
Ham tum se na kuchh kah paaye, tum ham se na kuchh kah paaaye – Ziddi
Falsafa pyar ka - Duniya

Raga: Bhupali Todi
O, zindagi ke denevale - Nagin

Raga: Bihag
Koi gata, main so jata - Alaap
Banke chakori gori, jhum jhum nachegi
Tere sur aur mere geet - Goonj Uthi Shahanai
Tere pyar men dildar - Mere Mehboob
Bole re surili boliyan - Grih Pravesh
Tum murli madhur bajao
Ai dil beqarar jhum - Shah Jahan
Hamare dilse na jana, dhokha na khana - Udan Khatola
Chalenge tir jab dil par - Kohinoor
Zindagi ke safar men gujar jate hain jo makam - Aap Ki Kasam
Pal bhar ki pahechan aapse - A non-film song by Manna Day
Yeh kya jagah hai doston - Umrao Jaan
Meri ladli re, meri ladli - Andaaz(old)

Raga: Bilaskhani Todi
Jhoothay naina bolay - Lekin
Diya na bujhegi, aaj hamara

Raga: Basant Mukhari
O basanti pavan pagal - Jis Desh Me Ganga Behti Hai
Vada kar le sajna - Haathki Safai

Raga: Chandrakaush
Tu hi tu main seva karu
San sanna sanna sanna, jao re o pavan
Majhi re himmat na har

Raga: Chayanat
Chanda re, ja re ja re - Ziddi
Ham bekhudi men tumko pukare chale gaye - Kaala Paani
Tere naina talash kare jise – Talaash (Mishra Khamaj ?)
Baad muddat ki yeh ghadi ayi - Jahan Ara
Chaina nahin aye, kahan dil jaye - Samundar
Zan Zan Zan Zan payal baje

Raga: Charukeshi
Bainya na dharo - Dastak (old)
Aaj dilpe koi jor chalta nahin - Milan
Kabhi raat din hum dur the - Aamne Saamne
Mohabbatke suhane din, javani ki hansi raaten
Ek tu na mila - Himalay ki Godmen
Akele hain chale ao - Raaz
Bekhudimen sanam
Kisi rahamen kisi modpar - Mere Hamsafar
Dukh ki laharne cheda hoga - A Ghazal by Ghulam Ali
Shyam teri bansi pukare radha naam - Geet Gata Chal
Chhod de sari duniya kisike liye - Saraswati Chandra
Megha re Megha re... - Pyaasa Saawan
Aisa lagta hai zindagi tum ho - A Ghazal by Chitra Singh
Patthar ke khuda - JS
Main khayaal hoon kisi aur ka - JS
Teri ummid tera intzaar karte hai - Diwanaa
Jaan-e-jaana...Jab jab teri surat dekhun – JaanBaaz
Mujhe ishq hai tujhi se

Raga: Darbari
Ye Hawaa Ye Raat Ye Chaandni - Sangdil
Dil jalta hai to jalne de - Pahli Nazar
Hum tumse muhabbat karake sanam - Aawara
O duniyake rakhavale - Baiju Bawra
Meri duniya badal gayi
Kabhi dil dilse takarata to hoga
Tumse ghar ghar kahalaya
Mitava laut ayo re
Tu pyarka sagar hai - Seema
Tuthe hue khvabonne - Madhumati
Basti basti parabat parabat - Baadal
Mujhe tumse kuch bhi na chahie - Kanhaiya
Muhabbat ki jhuthi kahani pe roye - Mugal-e-azam
He ram tumhari ramyan - Sampurna Ramayan
Pyarki aagmen tanbadan - Ziddi
Tora man darpan kahalay - Kaajal
Daiya re daiya laj mohe lage - Leader
Guzre hai aaj ishqmen - Dil Diya Dard Liya
Raha gardishonmen haradam - Do Badan
Jhanak jhanak tori baje payeliya - Mere Huzur
Chandiki divar na todi - Vishvaas
Ab kahan jayen ham - Ujala
Sarfaroshi ki tammana - Shaheed
E dil mujhe aisi jagah le chal - Arzoo (old)
Teri duniya mein dil lagta nahin - Baware Nain
Mere mehboob shayad aaj kuchh - Kitne Paas Kitne Door
Ghoonghat ke pat khol re - Jogan
Dekha hai pehli baar - Saajan
Tumhe zindagi ke ujale mubarak - Poornima
Ishwar satya hai - Satyam Shivam Sundaram
Kitna hasin hai mausam - Azad
Hum tum se juda ho ke - Ek Sapera Ek Lutera
Ab meri vinti suno bhagwaan
Aap ki nazaron ne samajha - Anpadh
Hangama hai kyon barpa - A Ghazal by Ghulam Ali
Ud ja bhanwar maya kamal ka - Rani Roopmati
Koi matwala ayaa more dware - Love In Tokyo
Pag ghoongroo bandh meera naachi thi - Namak Halal
Yaad mein teri jaag jaag ke hum - Mere Mehboob
Agar mujhse muhobbat hai, mujhe sab apne gam de do
Dene wale mujhe maujon ki rawani de de - A Ghazal By Jagjit Singh
Mein tere darpe ayaa hun, kuchh karke jaunga - Laila Majnu
Sanvare mat ja
Nainheenko raah dikha prabhu - Bhakta Surdaas
Suhani chaandni raaten hamen sone nahi deti - Mukti
Mere mehboob na jaa, aaj ki raat na jaa - Noor Mahal
Shayerana se hai zindagi ke adaa - Phir Teri Kahani Yaad Aye
Jay Radha madhav Jai kunjbihari - Bhajan by Jagjit Singh
Bahon Ke Darmiyan Film Khamoshi
Ku-ba-ku fail gai baat shanaasai ki Mehdi Hassan
Daiya re daiya, laaj mohe lage Taal Kehrva Film: Leader
Dil jalta hai to jalne de Taal Kehrva Film Pehli Nazar
Jo chala gia use bhool ja Film Saathi
Chandi ki dewar na tori Film Vishwas
Suhani chandni ratein hame sone Film Mukti

Raga: Desh
Dukhke din ab bitat nahi
Gori tore naina kajar bin kare kare - Main Suhagan Hun
Apko pyar chupaneki buri adat hai - Neela Akash
Takdir ka fasaana - Sehra
Eri ayi barakha ritu
Chali re chali re mai to des paraye
Aji ruthhkar ab kahan jaiega - Aarzu
Vande mataramh - Anand Math
Phir kahin koi phul khila - Anubhav
Bekasi hadse jab guzar jaye - Kalpana
Chadariya jhini re jhini - A Kabir bhajan by Anup Jalota
Door Koi Gaaye - Baiju Bawra
Kyun Naye Lag Rahe - 1942, A Love Story
Sainya jao mose na bolo kahe ko neha lagaye - Jhanak Jhanak Paayal Baaje

Raga: Desi
Aaj gaavat man mero jhumke - Baiju Bawra

Raga: Devagandhar
Jhule na jhul
Jab dilko satae gam

Raga: Durga
Geet gaya pattharonne - Geet Gaya Pattharonne
Chanda re mori patiya le ja - Miss Mary

Raga: Dhani
Prabhu tero nam - Hum Dono
Badan pe sitare - Prince

Raga: Gara
Mohe panghatpe nandalal ched gayo re - Mugal e Azam
Unke khayal aye to ate chale gaye - Laal Pathhar
Tere mere sapne ab ek rang hain - Guide
Jivanmen piya tera sath rahe - Gunj Uthi Shehnai
Raghupati raghav raja ram - Bhajan
Thumak chalat ram chandra - Bhajan
Aise to na dekho - Teen Deviyan
Hamsafar saath apna chhod chale
Diwana kahke aaj mujhe phir pukariye - Muzlim
Kabhi khud pe kabhi haalaath pe ronaa aayaa - Hum Dono
Aap aaye toh khayale – Gumrah
Khuda bhi aasmaan se jab
Raga: Gour Malhar
Garajat barsat savan ayo re - Barsaat Ki Raat (old)
Sharabi sharabi ye savanka mausam
Jhir jhir barase savani ratiyan - Ashirvad
Raga: Gour Sarang
Allah tero naam - Hum Dono

Raga: Gurjari Todi
Sanvaro nand-nandana - Chala Vahi Desh (A non film album)
Ek tha bachapan - Aashirwad
Jaa-jaa re ai pathikwa - Lekin

Raga: Hamir/Hamvir
Surki gati main kya janun
Madhuban men radhika nache re - Kohinoor

Raga: Hamir/Hamvir Kalyani
Jao Re Jogi Tum Jao Re - Amrapali

Raga: Hangshadhwani
Ja tose nahin bolun kanhaiya - Parivaar
Ranga de de madhubanaki hiraniya
Santo karamki gati nyari - Chala Vahi Desh (album)

Raga: Hemant
Sudh bisar gai aja
Yad piyaki aye - A Thumri by Ustaad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan
Balma anadi man bhaye - Bahurani
Tumbin jeevan kaise - by Manna Dey
Udajare ja re kaga - Meera bhajan by Lata Mangeshkar

Raga: Jaijaiwanti
Manmohana bade jhuthe - Seema
Bairan ho gai raina - Dekh Kabir Roya
Zindagi aaj mere namse sharamati hai
Yeh dilki lagi kam kya hogi - Mugal e Azam
Dost bankar bhi nahin saath nibhanevala - A Ghazal by Ghulam Ali
Suni suni saans kay sitaar par - Lal Patthar
Thumak chalat Ramchandra, baajat paijaniya – Bhajan

Raga: Jhinjhoti
Badli badli duniya hai meri
Chhup gaya koi re durase pukarake - Champakali
Mere maheboob tujhe meri muhabbatki qasam - Mere Mehboob
Jaun kahan bata e dil - Chhoti Bahen
Tum mujhe yun bhula na pao ge - Pagla Kahin Ka
Teri ankhoke siva duniyamen - Chirag
Main to sare bandhan tod chali
Ghungharuki taraha, bajtahi raha hun main - Chor Machaye Shor
Chita nandan aage nachungi
Mose chal kiye jaye hai re hai hai dekho saiyan beiman - Guide
Ja ja re ja, balmava - Basant Bahar
Koi hamdam na raha, koi sahara na raha - Jhumroo

Raga: Jogakauns
Baje re payela baje

Raga: Jogiya
He natraja gangadhar shambho
Piya bina suna gita
Raatbharka hai maheman andhera - Sone Ki Chidiya
Dil ek mandir hai - Dil Ek Mandir
Keh Do Koi Na Kare Yahan Pyaar - Goonj Uthi Shehnaai
Gazab kiya tere vaade pe - MH

Raga: Jaunpuri
Vo duniyako yad rahega
Dil ched koi aisa nagma
Piya te kahan gayo
Ghunghatke pat khol(Kabir Bhajan) - Jogan
Meri yad men tum na ansu bahana - Madhosh
Jaye to jayen kahan samjhe ga kaun yahan - Taxi Driver
Jaba dilko sataye gam tu uuu ched sakhi sargam - Sargam (Old)
1. Jaye to jayen kahan samjhe ga kaun yahan Taal kehrva Film Taxi Driver
2. Meri yadmen tum na ansu bahana Taal kehrva Film Madhosh Listen Midi
3. Vo duniyako yad rahega
4. Dil ched koi aisa nagma Taal kehrva Film Inspector
5. Ghunghatke pat khol (Kabir Bhajan) Taal kehrva Film Jogan
7. Muhabbat ki jhoothi kahani pe roye Taal kehrva Film: Mughal-E-Azam
8. Jab dilko sataye gam tu uuu ched sakhi sargam - Sargam (Old)


Raga: Kafi
Kase kahun manki bata
Balma aan baso more manmen
Ishqki garmie jajabta kise pesha karun
Kali ghodi dwar khadi - Chashm-e-Bud-Dur
Tum nahin, gam nahin, sharab nahin - A Ghazal by Jagjit Singh
Gaironpe karam apnonpe sitam - Aankhen
Biraj me holi khelat nand lal - Godaan
Ye haqeeqat hai – CS

Raga: Kalavati
Hay re vo din kyun na aye - Anuradha
Kahe tarasae jiyara - Chitralekha
A ja re mere pyarke sahi
Koi sagar dilko bahalata nahin - Dil Diya Dard Liya
Kabhi to miloge jivansathi
O ghath savari thodi thodi bavari
Sanam tu bevafake namse - Khilona
Subah aur sham kamhi kam - Uljhan
Dil men aur to kya rakha hai - A Ghazal by Ghulam Ali
Maika piya bulave - Sur Sangam
Hai agar dushman zamana - Hum Kisise Kum Nahin
Bhajan bina chain naa aye ram - Rafoochakkar
Meri Awaaz suno - Naunihal

Raga: Kalyan
Do naina matavale tihare - Choti Bahan
Janevalese mulakat na hone payi - Amar
Ansu bhari hai ye jivanki rahe - Parvarish
Ye chaman hamra apna hai
Jiya le gayo ji mora savariya - Anpadh
Ja re badra bairi ja - Bahana
Chhodo chhodo chhodo mori bahiya
Bhuli hui yadon - Sanjog
Mausam hai ashikana - Pakeezah
Inhi logone le lina dupatta mera - Pakeezah
Kenu sang khelun hori - Chala vahi desh ( non filmi album)
Jab dip jale ana - Chit Chor
Woh sham kuchh ajib thi - Khamoshi (old)
Chandansa badan chanchal chitavan - Saraswati Chandra
Re man surmen ga
Jay jay he jagadambe mata
Jivan dor tumhi sang bandhi - Satyavaan Savitri
Apke anurodhpe main ye geet - Anurodh
Ranjish hi sahi, dil hi dukhane ke liye aa - A Ghazal by Mehdi Hasan
Dil jo na kahe saka - Bhigi Raat
Shola hun bhadakne ki gujarish nahin karta - A Ghazal by Jagjit Singh
Suni jo unke aane ki aahat - Satyam Shivam Sundaram
Woh haske mile humse - Baharen Phir Bhi Aayegi
Bada dukh dina tere lakhanne - Ram Lakhan
Yaad rahega, pyarka yeh rangin zamanaa yaad rahega - Umar Qaid
Sochte aur jaagte sansonka ek dariyaa hun mein - A Ghazal by Gulam Ali
Meri duniyamen tum aaye - Heer Ranjha
Koi jo mila tha mujhe "Breathless" - Breathless
Main kya janun kya jadu hai
Sinemen sulaghate hai arman - Sangdil
Lagta nahin hai dil mera - Laal Quila
Man re tu kahe na dhir dhare - Chitralekha
Panv padun tore shyam - Tere bharose Nandalal (A non film Album)
Dhadkate dilka payam le lo
Pritam aan milo
Saranga teri yaadmen - Saaranga
Phir na kije meri gustakh...Dekhiye apne phir pyarse - Phir Subah Hogi
Tum mujhe bhul bhi jao - Didi
Bade bhole ho
Nigahen milaneko ji chahata hai - Dil Hi To Hai
Zindagi-bhar nahin bhulegi - Barsaat Ki Raat (old)
Sansarse bhage phirte ho - Chitralekha
Tum agar mujhko - Dil Hi To Hai
Tum bin jivan kaise bita - Anita
Intazaar aur abhi
Abhi na jao chhodkar - Hum Dono
Ansu samjhke kyun mujhe - Chhaaya
Chhupa lo yun dil men pyar mera - Mamta
Woh jab yaad aye bahut yaad aye - Parasmani
Tum gaganke chandrama - Sati Savitri
Jara si ahat hoti hai...kahin yeh woh to nahin - Haqueeqat
Dil e betabko sinese - Palaki
Dil diya dard liya - Dil Diya Dard Liya
Tere huns ki kya tariph karun - Leader
Biti na bitai raina - Parichay
Savereka suraj tumhare liye - Ek Baar Muskuraa Do
Ang ang rang jhalakae - Sankalp
Is modse jate hai - Aandhi
Ehasaan tera hoga mujhapar - Junglee
Roj roj dalidali kya likh jaye - Angoor
Lau laga ke geet gaa ke - Bhabi Ki Chudiyan
Shreeramchandra kripalu bhajamana
Sine men sulagte hain arman -- Tarana
Saptasurana teen gram - Tansen
Mere hamsafar mere hamsafar mere paas aa mere paas aa - Refugee
Ghar se nikalte hi - Papa Kehte Hain.
Pyar mein hota hai kya jadoo - Papa Kehte Hain.
Aapke anurodh pe - Anurodh
Aaye ho meri zindagi me - Raja Hindusthaani
Sochenge tumhe pyaar kare ki nahi - Deewana
Navkalpana (Rafi) – Mrig Trishna (1975)

Raga: Khamaj
Ab kya misal dun
Kya se kya ho gaya – guide
Din dhal jaye
Naina lad jayee hain – ganga jamuna
Vo na aenge palatkar - Devdaas
A dilse dil mila le - Navrang
Chunariya katati jae
O sajna, barkha bahara ayi - Parakh
Dhal chuki shame Gam - Kohinoor
Sham dhale jamuna kinare - Pushpanjali
Ang ang dole mera
Ayo kahanse ghanashyam - Buddha Mil Gaya
Bada natkhat hai...ka kare yashoda maiya - Amar Prem
Khat likha de savariyake nam babu
Bata do sakhi kaun gali gayo shyam
Mere to giridharagopala - Meera
Tere bina sajna lage na jiya hamar - Aarti
Vaishnav jan to - Narsinh Bhajan
Nazar lagi raja tore bungle par - Kaala Pani
Kuch to log kahenge - Amar Prem
Chain se humko kabhi
O Milan – Tohfa
Akhiyo ko – Bobby
Mora Gora Ang – Bandini
Ek Chatur Naar – Padosan
Aayo kahaan se Ghanshyam – Buddha Mil Gaya


Raga: Kamod
Eri jane na dungi - Chitralekha
Jao re jogi tum jao re - Amrapali
Tumko dekha to ye khayal aya - Saath Saath

Raga: Kedar
Bekaspe karam kijie - Mugal e Azam
Darashan do ghanashyam
Kanha ja ja
Mil ja mil ja janena
Hamko manki shakti dena - Guddi
Bole to basuri kahi - Saawan Ko Aane Do
Panchhi bawra chhand se prit lagaye
Aap yun hi agar humse milte rahe dekhiye ek din pyaar ho jaayega - Ek Musafir Ek Hasina
Pal do pal ka saath hamara - The Burning Train
Aapki ankhonmen kucch - Ghar
Uthaye ja unke sitam - Andaaz(old)r
Raga: Kaushik Kanada
Sau bar janam lenge - Ustaadon Ke Ustaad
Ab to madhava mohe ubar
Mai jajyo na prabhuko milna kab

Raga: Kirwani
Mera dil ye pukare a ja – Nagin
Jo Tum Todo Piya – Silsila
Tumhi mere mit ho
Yad na jaye bite dinonki - Dil Ek Mandir
Meri bhigi-bhigisi palakonpe - Anamika
Ye raten ye mausam nadika kinara - Delhi Ka Thug
Nind na mujhako ae - Post box No. 999
Pukarta chala hun main - Mere Sanam
Geet gata hun mai - Laal Pathhar
Mai pyarka rahi hun - Ek Musafir Ek Hasina
Aayi jhum jhum raat ye suhani - Love Marriage
Ankhonse hai utari ye dilmen - Phir Wohi Dil Laaya Hoon
Anevala pal janevala hai - Gol Maal
Shola tha jal bujha hun - A Ghazal by Mehdi Hassan
Beqaraar dil tu gayeja - Dur Ka Raahi
Ek radha ek meera - Ram Teri Ganga Maili
Para para hua pairahan-e-jaan - A Ghazal by Gulam Ali
E hush-e-beparvah tujhe shabnam kahun, shola kahun - A Ghazal by Gulam Ali
Be-sabab baat badhaneki zaroorat kya hai - Ghazals from Jagjit Singh's 'Face to Face'
Mera dil yeh pukare aaja - Nagin (old)
Rim jhim gire sawan sulag sulag jaye man…(Manzil)

Raga: Lalit
Pritam daras dikhao - Chacha Zindabad
Tu hai mera prem devta - Kalpana
Ik shahenshahne banvake hansi - Leader
Koi paas aya savere savere - A Ghazal by Jagjit Singh
Tu nahin to mere liye - Tum Yaad Aaye
Raina biti jaye - Amar Prem
Raga: Madhuvanti
Rasme ulfatako nibhae to nibhae kaise - Dilki Rahen
Ko birahini ko dukh jane - Chala Vahi Desh

Raga: Madhumadhavi Sarang
A lautke aja mere meet - Rani Roopmati

Raga: Manj Khamaj
Kaanha kanha aan padi re tere dwar - Aman
Jane kaise sapano me kho gai ankhiyan - Anuradha
Kaise dina bite kaise biti ratiyan piya jane na - Anuradha
Dil main ek lahar see uthi – Ghulam Ali
Shyamal Shyamal Baran Komal Komal Charan – Navrang

Raga: Malkauns
Man tarapat hari darshanko - Baiju Bawra
Adha hai chandrama rat adhi - Navrang
Tu chhupi hai kahan - Navrang
Ye kahani hai diyeki aur tufanaki - Tufan aur Diya
O pavanvegase udanevale ghode - Jai Chaittaur
Zindagibhara Gam judaika mujhe
Ankhiyana sang ankhiya lagi aaj - Bada Aadami
Balma manena
Paga ghungharu bole chananana chanh
Savanki rat kari kari
Mujhe na bula - Suvarna Sundari
Ai man tere bachche kai karoda
Saghan ban phulyo re - A bhajan by Pandit Jasraj
Dip jalaye jo ggton ke maine - Kalakaar
Aaye sur ke panchhi aaye - Sur Sangam
E Roshniyo ke shahar bata – mehdi hassan

Raga: Malagunji
Nainaso nain nahi milo - Jhanak Jhanak Payel Baaje
Ghar a ja ghir aye badra - Chhote Nawab
Unko yeh shikayat hai - Adaalat (old)
Na jiya lage na - Anand

Raga: Mand
Tu chanda main chandani - Reshma aur Shera
Kesariya Balma - Lekin
Suniyo Jee Araj – Lekin
Ab to hai tumse har khushi apni - Abhimaan
Piya piya bole mora kangana - Swarg Nark
Bachpan ki mohabbat ko - Baiju Baawara
Jo me jaanthi bisarat - Shabaab
Dheemo re chale re vaayariyo - Sultan Khan / Chitra's album Piya Basanti
Thade Rahiyo - Pakiza

Raga: Maru Bihag
Payelavali dekha na
Tum to pyar ho sajna - Sehra
Matavali nar thumak thumak
Radha jaye na
Jamunaa kinare aaja chaliya pukare aaja raadha jaye naa - Mehbooba

Raga: Marwa
Payeliya bavari - Saaz aur Aawaz

Raga: Megh Malhar
Ghata ghana ghora ghora - Tansen
Ghanana ghanana ghana baraso
Dukhabhare din bite re bhaiya - Mother India
Kare kare badra
Tan rangalo ji aaj man ranga lo baraso re - Tansen
Raga: Megh
Mahefil men baar baar kisi par nazar gai - A Ghazal by Gulam Ali.
Konpalen phir fut ayi - A Ghazal by Mehdi Hassan
Kahan se aye badra - Chashm-e-Bud-Dur

Raga: Miyan Ki Malhar
Lapak Jhapak – Boot Polish
Karo sab nichhavar
Nach mere mora jara nach
Bhaye Bhanjana...darasa tere mange main tera pujari - Basant Bahar
Nacha re mayura
Mammadshaha rangile
Bole re papihara - Guddi
Ek bas tu hi nahin - A Ghazal by Mehdi Hassan
Baadal umad bhar aaye - Saaz

Raga: Miya ki Todi
Bhini bhini bhor aayi - Asha Bhosle's Album 'Dil Padosi Hai'
Jhoothey Naina Bole - Lekin

Raga: Mohanam (Carnatic)
Jyoti Kalas Jalke - Bhabhi Ki Chudiyaan

Raga: Multani
Daya karo e giridhar-gopala

Raga: Nand/Anadi Kalyan
Tu jahan jahan chalega - Mera Saya

Raga: Naya ki Kanada
Chala diye deke gam

Raga: Pahadi
Sunri sakhi mohe sajna bulae - Nagin
Javan hai muhabbat- Anmol Ghadi
Tere nainonne chori kiya - Anmal Ghadi
Mere ankhomen bas gaya koi re - Barsaat (old)
Suhani rat dhal chuki - Dulari
O durke musaphir hamko bhi sath le le - Udan Khatola
Tasvir banata hun tasvir nahin banati - Baradari
Sun more sajna
Mushkil hai bahut mushkil - Mahal
Sajan ki galiyan chod chale - Baazar
Mohe jana hai pike nagariya
Mori atariyape kagan bole
Hai balma teri kasam
Aajki rat piya dil na todo
Prit ye kaisi bol duniya - Daag(old)
Mora nadan balma
Gaya andhera hua ujala - Subah Ka Tara
Sham dhale khidaki tale - Albala
Are ja re hato natakhat - Navrang
Tum mere mai teri
Sare jahanse achcha - Apna Ghar
Chal ud ja re panchi - Bhabhi
Tum ho jo mere hamsaphar
Vrindavanka krishna kanhaiya - Miss Mary
Tasvir banata hun teri khuna jigarase
Do sitaronka jamin par hai milan - Kohinoor
Koi pyaraki dekhe jadugari - Kohinoor
Dil todanevale
Apna bhi koi sathi hota
Tere bharose he nandalala - Title song - non film Album
Jo vada kiya vo - Taj Mahal
Jane kya dhundti rahati hain
Tum apna ranj o gam, apni pareshani mujhe de do
Parbatonke pedon para shamka basera
Savanke jhule pade - Jurmana
Nainka chain churakar le gayi - Chandramukhi
Sakhi ri mera man umade tana dole - Nagin
Ham aaj dil jalae
Do dil dhadak rahen hain aur avaj eka hai
Vo dil kahanse laun
Aaja raja leke barat aaja
Sab kuchh lutake hoshamen ae ro
Chaudavika chand ho - Chaudavika Chand
Ye vadiyan phijae bula rahi - Aaj aur Kal
Tujhko pukare mera pyar - Neel Kamal
Mujhe tumse muhabbat hai magar
Jara sun hasina ye sajni
Aja re tujhko mera pyar pukare - Waqt
Din hai baharke tere mere - Waqt
Kaun aya hai nigahonmen chamak jag uthi - Waqt
Ham jab simatake aapki bahonmen - Waqt
Maine dekha hai phulonse ladi shakhonmen
Age bhi jane na tu - Waqt
Nile parabtonki dhara - Aadmi aur Insaan
Yara dildara mera dil kahata - Aadmi aur Insaan
Salamat raho
Awaz mein na dunga...chahunga main tujhe sanjh savere - Dosti
Janevalo jara mudke dekho mujhe - Dosti
Gudiya hamse ruthi rahogi - Dosti
Lag ja gale ke phir ye hansi rat - Woh kaun thi
Baharonki manjhil rahe
Rahe na rahe ham maheka karenge - Mamta
Thukade hai mere dilke
Hamne to dilko apke kadmonpe
Usko nahin dekha hamne kabhi - Dadi Maa
Savanka mahina pavan kare sor - Milan
Aajki rat mere dilki salami - Raam Aur Shyam
Ratka samne jhume chandrama
Vahan kaun hai tera musaphir - Guide
Dil pukare a re a re - Jewel Thief
Rulake gaya sapna mera - Jewel Thief
Phulonke rangse - Prem Pujari
Jane na balma pritaki kasam
Tora man bada papi sanvariya re - Ganga Jamuna
Baharon mera jivan bhi sanvaro - Aakhiri Khat
Do dil tute do dil hare - Heer Ranjha (old)
Chalo dildar chalo - Pakeezah
Ye dil aur unki - Prem Parbat
Aaja re, aaja re o mere dilvar aaja - Noori
Kabhi kabhi mere dilmen - Kabhi Kabhi
Karavate badlate rahe sari raat ham - Aap ki Kasam
Chori chori koi ae - Noori
Sainya bina ghar suna - Lahu Ke Do Rang
Dilmen ek lahar si uthi hai abhi" - A Gulam Ali Ghazal
Kahe sataye kaheko rulaye - Quyamat Se Quyamat Tak
Hushn pahadonka - Ram Teri Ganga Maili
Kaise jiyunga main agar tu na mili - Sahibaan
Tod diya dil mera tune ai bewafa - Dulari
Isharon isharon mein dil lenewale - Kashmir Ki Kali
Neela aasman so gayaa - Silsila
Aapko dekhke baadalko pasinaa aa gayaa - Hum Aapke Dilmen Rahte Hai
Baharon Mera Jivan Savaron
Payo ji maine Ram ratan dhan payo
Sab kuch lutake hosh men aaye to kya kiya - Ek saal
Meri ankhon me basagaya koi re mohe ninda aye - Barsaat (old)
Aaj mausam bada - Loafer

Raga: Palasi
Gori tera gaanv bada pyara - Chit Chor
Hamari yad aayegi, kabhi tanhaiyon men -- Hamari Yaad Aaegi

Raga: Patdeep
Saaz ho tum awaz hun main - Saaz aur Awaz
Megha chhaye adhi rat - Sharmilee

Raga: Pilu
Ajahun na aye balma - Sanjh Aur Savera
Jhulemen pavanki ayi bahar - Baiju Bawra
More sainya ji utarenge paar nadiya dhire baho - Uran Khatola
Chandanka palna reshamki dori - Shabab
Dheere se aaja ri akhiyan mein nindiya - Albela
Apni kaho kuchh meri suno...Kya dilka lagana bhul gaye
Naina divani kuchh nahin mane
Badi der bhai kab loge khabar
Abke baras bite
Na manu na manu...dagabjaaz tori batiya na manu re - Ganga Jamuna
Hai Hai rasiya tu bada bedardi
Sainya tore dvare khade
Vapha jinse ki bevapha ho gae
Na jhatako julphse pani
E meri joharajabi - Waqt
Banwari Re Jeene Ka Sahara - Ek Phool Char Kante
Jaiye aap kahan jayenge - Mere Sanam
Dhoondho dhoondho re saajna - Ganga Jamuna
Allah megh de pani de - Guide
Kali ghata chhaye mora jiya ghabraye - Sujata
Piya piya na lage mora jiya
Main soya akhian meeche
Kabhi aar kabhi paar - Aar Paar
Tere bin soone nayan hamare - Meri Soorat Teri Aankhein
Pi ke ghar aaj pyari dulhaniya chali babul - Mother India
Vikal mora manva - Mamta
Maine shayad tumhe pahle - Barsaat Ki Raat (old)
Nadiya kinare harayee aayee kangna - Abhiman
Ab ke baras bhejo bhaiya ko babul - Bandini
Baharon ne mera chaman loot kar - Devar
Kaun gali gaye shyam - Pakeezah
Tu jo mere sur men - Chitchor
Na jao saiyan chhuda ke baiyan - Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam
Din sara guzara tore angana - Junglee
Dhadakate dil ki tamanna - Shama
Sur na saje - Basant Bahar
Chura liya hai tumne jo dil ko - Yaadon Ki Baraat
De de pyar de - Sharabi
Sach kehti hai duniya - Ishq Pe Jor Nahin
Maine rang li aaj chunariya sajana tore rang me - Dulhan Ek Raat Ki
Mainu ishq lag gaya rog - Dil Hai Ke Maanta Nahin
Surmayi akhiyonmen nanha munna ek sapna de jaa re - Sadma
Apni kaho kuch meri suno - Parchhain
Murali bairan bhayi re kanhaiya tori - New Dilli
Ajahun na aye balama - Sawan Beeta Jaye
Chaahat des se aane waale yeh to bataa ke sanam kaise hain - A ghazal by Pankaj Udhas
Saari saari raat teri yaad sataye – Aji Bas Shukriya

Raga: Puria Dhaneshri
Meri sanson ko jo mehaka rahi hai - Badalte Rishtey
Rang aur nur ki baraat kise pesh karun - Ghazal
Rut aa gayi re, rut chha gayi re - 1947-Earth
Hai rama yeh kya hua – Rangeela
Tumne kya kya kiya hai hamare liye - Prem Geet
Kitane dino ke baad ye aai sajana rat milan ki
Ruk jao banavasi ram - Sampurna Ramayan
Tori jay jay karatara
Koyaliya ud ja yahan nahi koya
Labon se chumlo, aankhon se thaamlo mujh ko - Aastha
Ya devi sarva bhuteshu – Pt Jasraj
Tere khamosh hothose – Anuradha Paudwal, Pankaj Udhas
Aake teri banho main – vansh
Honth saagar hai aankh paimane – ghulam ali

Raga: Rageshri
Muhabbat aisi dhadkan hai - Anarkali
Shubhadina ayo rajadulara
Mere sang ga gunguna - Janwar
Kaun aya mere manke dvare - Dekh Kabir Roya
Mitava bole mithe bain – Parichay
Ye kya hua – Amar Prem

Raga: Sarang
Savan aye ya na aye - Dil Diya Dard Liya
Aja bhanvara suni dagar
Aa laut ke aaja mere meet - Rani Roopmati
Dair-o-harammen basne waalon - Ghazal from Jagjit Singh's album 'Face to Face'
Saawan rut aaye dekho balam - Sultan Khan / Chitra's album Piya Basanti

Raga: Sudh Kalyan
Rasik balma - Chori Chori (Bhupali)
Ye shamki tanahaiyan
Chand phir nikala - Paying Guest
Meri muhabbat javan rahegi - Jaanvar
Jahaan daal daal par sone ki cheediyaan - Sikandar-e-Azam

Raga: Sudh Sarang
O savare aja pyar liye

Raga: Shankara
Rumajhuma rumajhuma chala tihari - Tansen
Bolo bolo kanha bolo chaliya - Chaliya

Raga: Shivranjani
Pardesiyo se naa – Jab Jab Phool Khile
Milti hai zindagi main mohabbat - Aankhen
Tod diya dil mera
Aavaz deke hamem tum bulao - Professor
Baharon phul barsao - Suraj
Jane kahan gaye woh din - Mera Naam Joker
Sansar hai ek nadiya - Raftaar
Laj rakho giridhari
Khabar meri naa lini re bahut din bite - Sant Gyaneshwar
Rimjhimke geet savan gaye - Anjaana
Mere naina savan bhado - Mahebooba
Banake kyun bigada re - Zanjeer
Na kisiki ankhka nur hun – Lal Qilla
O mere sanam - Sangam
Kai sadiyonse kai janmonse
Dilke jharokhemen tujhko bithakar - Bramhachari
Jo bhi dukh yaad na tha, yaad aya - A Ghazal by Ghulam Ali
Tere mere bichmen - Ek Duje ke liye
Saajan a jao
Lage na mora jiya, sajna nahin aye haye
Kahin deep jale kahin dil - Bees Saal Baad
Tumhe dekhti hun to lagta hai aise - Tumhare Liye
Chuma chuma...Mujhko banale priyatama - Pataal Bhairavi
Yaad teri aayegi - Ek Jaan Hai Hum
Mahive...Na jaiyo Pardes - Karma
Tumse milkar, na jane kyun, aur bhi kuchh yaad aata hai - Pyar Jhukta Nahin
Bheega bheega mausam aaya, barse ghata ghanghor - Bhayanak
Mujhe Kuch Kahna Hai - Mujhe Kuch Kahna Hai
O Saathi Re – Muqqaddar ka sikandar
Karoge yaad to - Bazaar

Raga: Sindh Bhairavi
Ajahun na aye balma - Sanjh Aur Savera
Mehendi lagi mere hathme
Sakiya aaj mujhe nind nahi
Chhod gaye balam - Barsaat (old)

Raga: Sohini
Kuhu kuhu bole koyaliya - Swarna Sundari
Jhumati chali hava - Sangeet Samrat Tansen
Jivan jyot jale
Prem jogan ban ja
Kanha re kanha
Din Jogan Ban Gaye – Mughal E Azam ?

Raga: Sur Malhar
Dar lage garaje badariya - Ram Rajya

Raga: Tilang
Sajna sang kahe neha lagae - Main Nashe Me Hun
Itna to yaad hai mujhe - Mehboob ki Mehndi
Yahi arman lekar aaj apne - Shabab
Meri kahani bhulnevale - Deedar
Mujhe e jindagi divana kar de
Chhup gaye tare nazare - Do Raaste
Lagan tose lagi balma - Dekh Kabir Roya
Choota sa baalama ankhiyan neend udaye le gayo - Raagini
Raga: Tilak Kamod
Jalta rahata din raina
Tumhare bin ji na lage gharmen - Bhumika

Raga: Todi
Insan bano - Baiju Bawra
Mai to ek khvab hun - Himalaya Ki God Me
Jago re jago prabhat aya
Khuda e baratara teri jaminpar - Taj Mahal
Tori Jai Jai Kartaar - Baiju Bawra
Insane bano - Baiju Bawra
Jagmen sunder hai do naam, chahe krishna kaho ya ram – A bhajan by Anup Jalota
Duniya na bhaye mohe, ab to bulale - Basant Bahar

Raga: Vrindavani Sarang
Zutimuti batiya avan kahe – Rudali

Raga Malika
Raga Malika sung by Manna Dey – Jhanak Jhanak Payel Baje

Friday, June 12, 2009

Indians are world's 'greenest' according to National Geographic Society and GlobeScan

Indians are world's 'greenest' according to National Geographic Society and GlobeScan


http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/File-Indians-are-worlds-greenest-Survey/articleshow/4527041.cms


Thursday, May 28, 2009

Programs in Ethnomusicology, Indian Film Studies, Comparative Religions, and Jainism

I have created Wiki pages (which are editable by anyone) of lists of graduate programs in Indian ethnomusicology, Comparative Religions of India, Indian Film Studies and Jainism Studies.

Grad programs in ethnomusicology of South Asia:
http://indianethnomusicology.wikia.com/

Study of comparative religions in India:
http://compreligionsindia.wikia.com/

Films Studies in India:
http://filmstudiesindia.wikia.com/

Study of Jainism in North America and Europe:
http://jainism.wikia.com/wiki/

Sunday, May 10, 2009

वैदिक मंत्र

(notation A - X.Y.Z :
Mantra number A is from Rig Veda Mandala X, Sukta Y, Mantra Z)
1 - 2.23.1
2 - 1.27.13
3 - 1.112.3
4 - 1.147.1
5 - 1.164.50
6 - 1.167.4
7 - 1.169.5
8 - 1.185.9
9 - 1.186.8
10 - 2.28.3
11 - 3.6.7
12 - 3.49.1
13 - 3.56.8
14 - 4.34.11
15 - 4.50.9
16 - 4.55.1
17 - 5.31.8
18 - 6.7.1
19 - 6.7.2
20 - 6.50.11
21 - 6.52.15
22 - 8.63.12
23 - 9.109.1-2
24 - 10.51.8
25 - 10.55.7
26 - 10.85.23
27 - 10.85.36
28 - 10.95.7
29 - 10.109.5
30 - 10.110.11
31 - 10.112.6
32 - 1.99.1
33 - 7.59.2
34 - 1.164.41
35 - 10.71.2
36 - 6.61.4
Thus, e.g., 33 - "Om trayambakam yajamahe sugandhim pushtivardham..."
is Rig Veda Mandala 7, Sukta 59, Mantra 2.

भारत और दक्षिण एशिया

Subject: Indian Influence in Ancient South-East Asia
A Cultural History of India
Edited by A.L. Basham
Oxford University Press, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras 1975
Chapter XXXI: Indian Influence in Ancient South-East Asia
by ALASTAIR LAMB
BEGIN QUOTES:
Pages 442-443
By the opening of the Christian era the civilization of India had begun to
spread across the Bay of Bengal into both island and mainland South-East
Asia; and by the fifth century AD. Indianized states, that is to say states
organized along the traditional lines of Indian political theory and
following the Buddhist or Hindu religions, had established themselves in
many regions of Burma, Thailand, Indo-China, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Some
of these states were in time to grow into great empires dominating the zone
between metropolitan India and the Chinese southern border, which has
sometimes been described as' Further India' or' Greater India '. Once rooted
in South- East Asian soil, Indian civilization evolved in part through the
action of forces Of South-East Asian origin, and in part through the
influence of cultural and political changes in the Indian subcontinent. Many
scholars have described the eastward spread of Indian civilization in terms
of a series of 'waves'; and there are good reasons for considering that such
'waves' are still breaking on South-East Asian beaches today.
The cultures of modern South-East Asia all provide evidence of a long period
of contact with India. Many South-East Asian languages (Malay and Javanese
are good examples) contain an Important proportion of words of Sanskrit or
Dravidian origin. Some of these languages, like Thai, are still written in
scripts which are clearly derived from Indian models South-East Asian
concepts of kingship and authority, even in regions which are now dominated
by Islam, owe much to ancient Hindu political theory. The Thai monarchy,
though following Hinayana Buddhism of the Sinhalese type, still requires the
presence of Court brahmans (who by now have become Thai in all but name) for
the proper performance of its ceremonials. The traditional dance and
shadow-puppet theatres in many South-East Asian regions, in Thailand,
Malaya, and Java for example, continue to fascinate their audiences with the
adventures of Rama and Sita and Hanuman. In Bali an elaborate indigenous
Hindu culture still flourishes, and preserves intact many Indian ideas and
practices which have long passed out of use in the subcontinent; and here we
haven fossil record, as it were, which can be exploited to throw much light
on the early cultural history of India itself. The fact of Indian impact on
South-East Asian civilization, past and present, is, indeed, in no doubt.
Much controversy, however, has arisen over the precise way in which this
impact took place.
Page 443
The term South-East Asia, moreover, covers a very extensive area within
which there exists a considerable range of environments and ethnic types,
and throughout which there cannot possibly have been a uniform operation of
any one of the several likely processes of Indianization. Some populations,
like the Khmers, the Chams, and the Javanese, became heavily Indianized.
Others, like some of the tribes in Sulawesi (the Celebes), were indeed
subject to Indian influence, but lightly and, most probably, indirectly. Yet
others, like the Negritos of the Malay Peninsula, cannot be said to have
been Indianized at all.
Page 444
...It seems most probable, on the present available information, that
Indianization started in earnest in the period from the first century B.C.
to the first century A.D. There can be no doubt, at all events, that by the
fifth century A.D. Indian culture was widely known in South-East Asia, and
that Indianized states had appeared not only in regions with relatively
large populations practicing a settled agriculture, like Cambodia, Vietnam,
and Java, but also in remote and sparsely peopled districts like Kalimantan
(Indonesian Borneo) and Sulawesi (Celebes).
...Indian colonization of South-East Asia, on the pattern of European
colonization of North America or Australia and New Zealand, is no longer
regarded by the majority of scholars as a major factor in the initiation of
the Indianization process, which now tends to be interpreted in the light of
an expansion of international maritime trade.
Page 445
...It is certain however, that once the economic importance of the routes
from India eastwards through South-East Asia was established, they were
extensively exploited by Indians who, unlike the Westerners of this time,
left a lasting impression upon the South-East Asian cultural landscape.

We possess very little direct evidence as to the manner in which the
Indians, once they began to trade and travel widely in South-East Asia,
actually proceeded to Indianize the indigenous peoples with whom they came
into contact. It is clear, however, that more than one mechanism must have
operated and that there can have been no question of a single pattern of
events holding good for the whole region.
Pages 445-446
Such communities would no doubt provide an example for the techniques of
urban life along Indian lines and the practical advantages of the major
Indian religions, which could be copied by neighbouring indigenous
populations.
Another mechanism can perhaps be detected in the deliberate borrowing by
indigenous South-East Asian rulers of the techniques of Indian political
organization, of which they learned either from merchants visiting their
territories or from themselves visiting the early entrepôts. More recently
we have examples of this kind of mechanism at work in Asia in the efforts
towards self-Westernization made by Japan and Thailand in the latter part of
the nineteenth century. Here there was no blind swallowing in its entirety
of an alien culture: rather, specific aspects of Western civilization,
mainly technical and political, were married into the indigenous way of
life. The finer points of art, philosophy, and literature tended to be
ignored, Since ancient Indian political life was so inextricably bound, up
with the religious cosmology, one would expect that self-lndianization, as
it were, would result in the establishment, at an official level, of an
Indian-type religion in the charge of a brahmanical priestly caste, whose
role would be comparable to that filled today by Western advisers in an
under-developed nation.
Page 446
...The Chinese texts, confirmed by epigraphy, describe the founding of the
Indianized kingdom of Funan in Indo-China in terms which could well suggest
the career of the Indian equivalent of Brooke. Kaundinya, so the story goes,
guided by a dream, set out in search of a kingdom which he won by kidnapping
and marrying Willow Leaf, Queen of Funan, This tale was later phrased in
more orthodox Indian terms, with the brahman Kaundinya marrying Nagi Soma,
the daughter of the King of the Nagas, or serpent spirits, a legend
strikingly similar to that accounting for the origin of the Pallava Dynasty
of south India. The Khmers, whose empire was a successor state to Funan,
later adopted this story as their official myth, and the Naga motif came to
dominate their decorative art.
Pages 446-447
...Almost ubiquitous in South- East Asia, for example, is a category of
Buddha image showing very clear signs of Gupta or Amaravati influence; and
some examples of this can, on the established principles of Indian
iconography, be dated to very early in the Christian era. Specimens have
been found in Indo-China, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the
Philippines. The earliest South-East Asian inscriptions, some of which may
perhaps date to the fourth century A.D., show the use of a script generally
considered to be of a south Indian type, with little if any sign of
evolution in a South-East Asian environment. All this rather suggests the
deliberate acquisition by the first South-East Asian Indianized rulers of
the signs and symbols of Indian political organization, the language and
script of the brahmans, and the cult objects of the major Indian religions.
Page 447
...The cult of the Devaraja, the God King, though certainly expressed in
Indian terminology, developed, so many scholars believe, into a distinctive
corpus of political and cosmological ideas which lies behind the
proliferation of Khmer temples built in the form of mystic mountains and the
Javanese chandis which were not only places of worship but also royal tombs
and mechanisms, as it were, designed to link the dynasty on earth with the
spirit world. No more extreme examples of this cult, with its identification
of ruler with god,' be it Siva, Vishnu, or Buddha, can be found than in
Angkor Thom, the city of the late twelfth- and early thirteenth-century
Khmer ruler Jayavarman VII. Here, on the gateway towers of the city, and on
its central monument, the Bayon, the face of the king himself becomes the
dominant architectural motif. From all four sides of every tower of the
Bayon, Jayavarman VII looks out over his capital, his lips and eyes
suggesting an enigmatic and slightly malevolent smile. This is something
which the Roman emperors, who deified themselves in their own lifetimes,
would have understood, but which would have been beyond the comprehension of
the great Hindu and Buddhist dynasties of India. The Devaraja cult of the
Khmers, Chams, and Javanese Indianized kings has survived to the present day
in Thailand, where it explains many features of the modern Thai monarchy.
_________
Page 449
...Indianization, once initiated, did not come abruptly to a halt. Contacts
between India and South-East Asia along the trade-routes, once established,
persisted; and cultural changes in the Indian subcontinent had their effect
across the Bay of Bengal. During the late Gupta and the Pala-Sena periods
many South-East Asian regions were greatly influenced by developments in
Indian religious ideas, especially in the Buddhist field. The pilgrimages to
Indian religious centres like Nalanda, of which devout Chinese like Hsuan
Tsang and I Ching have left celebrated accounts, were also made by
South-East Asians, sometimes with much encouragement on the part of their
rulers. The Indonesian King Baladeva, for example, so an inscription
records, made in A.D. 860 a benefaction to the Buddhist university at
Nalanda. It should cause no surprise, therefore, to find a strong late Gupta
and Pala influence in many manifestations of Mahayana Buddhism in South-East
Asia. The art of the Sailendra Dynasty in Java, the builders during the
eighth and ninth centuries A.D. of Borobodur and many of the other
architectural glories of central Java, shows abundant evidence of this
particular influence, as also does the art of Srivijaya, a state which
dominated the Malayan and Sumatran shores of the Malacca Straits from the
seventh to the thirteenth centuries A.D.; and Pala influence can also be
seen to a varying degree in the major styles of the South-East Asian
mainland. Thus the great temple at Paharpur in Bengal, dating perhaps from
the seventh or eighth century, of which excavation has revealed the
ground-plan, may well be representative of an inspiration shared in common
by such widely separated monuments as Borobodur and Prambanan in central
Java, Angkor Wat in Cambodia, and the Ananda temple at Pagan in Burma.
Pages 449-450
Inscriptions show that there was also a very close contact between many
South-East Asian regions and the Tamil kingdoms, particularly during the
period of the Chola Dynasty (ninth to thirteenth centuries A.D.). There were
Tamil trading settlements at this time at Baros in western Sumatra and at
Takuapa on the Kra Isthmus. Indonesian rulers endowed shrines in Chola
territory in India. This connection between both sides of the Bay of Bengal
was so important that, in the eleventh century A.D., it induced the Chola
kings Rajaraja and Rajendra to undertake demonstrations of their sea power
in the direction of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, with the probable
objective of securing a commercial monopoly rather than the acquisition of
territory. It is not difficult, therefore, to find explanations for the
presence of a Chola element in many South-East Asian arts and architectures.
Page 450
The Thais, once established in the Menam basin, underwent a process of
Indianization which, because it is well documented, provides an invaluable
example of the mechanics of cultural fusion in South-East Asia. On the one
hand, Thai rulers set out deliberately to Indianize themselves. They sent,
for example, agents to Bengal, at that time suffering from the disruption of
Islamic conquest, to bring back models upon which to base an official
sculpture and architecture. Hence Thai architects began to build replicas of
the Bodh-Gaya stupa (Wat Chet Yot in Chiengmai is a good example) and Thai
artists made Buddha images according to the Pala canon as they saw it. On
the other hand, the Thais absorbed much from their Khmer and Mon subjects;
and the influence of Angkor and Dvaravati is obvious in Thai art. Thai kings
embraced the Indian religions, and they based their principles of government
upon Hindu practice as it had been understood by their Khmer predecessors.
Hence the Khmer version of the Devaraja cult was absorbed by the Thai
monarchy; and traces of it survive to this day.
Pages 450-451
The thirteenth century, which saw the conquests of the Thais, also witnessed
two major developments in South-East Asian religious life, both, if
sometimes rather indirectly, the product of Indian influence. Theravada
Buddhism established itself as the dominant form of religious expression on
the South-East Asian mainland; and the saffron-robed monk became ubiquitous
in Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. This movement appears to have
originated in Ceylon and is unconnected, except in the most remote way,
with the Buddhism which came to South-East Asia in the first centuries of
Indianization.
Page 451
...But it seems that the actual conversion of South-East Asian populations
to Islam on a significant scale did not begin until the thirteenth century,
when Indian Muslim merchants from Gujarat or Bengal brought the faith with
them as their ancestors had brought the Hindu and Buddhist religions....
The conversion to Islam of much of island South-East Asia was the last phase
of Indianization which we can treat in the same terms as our discussion of
the earlier establishment of Hindu and Buddhist influence; for in the
sixteenth century the South-East Asian cultural scene was greatly
complicated both by the coming of the European empire-builders and by the
great increase in Chinese settlement. Indian influence, of course, has
continued up to the present; but it has done so in competition with the
influences of Europe and China, to which, in recent years, have been added
those of America and Japan. The Islamic conversion in South-East Asia took
place along lines very similar to those which marked the coming of Buddhism
and Hinduism in earlier-years. It was established by influence and example,
not by force; and there is no South-East Asian parallel to the Islamic
Turkish invasions of India. Once established on South-East Asian soil, Islam
began to acquire peculiarly South-East Asian features, the product of its
intermarriage with earlier cultural strata, both Indianized and pre-Indian.
Thus women in Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines have not, as they
have in India and the Middle East, taken to veiling their faces in public.
The first South-East Asian mosques were not replicas of Indo-Saracenic art:
they were based on the forms of existing Buddhist and Hindu temple
architecture; and the dome is a late, and rather exotic, development in this
region. Many old pre-Islamic customs and ceremonies survived. Islamic
peasants continued to be entertained by stories from the Ramayana. Much of
Malay and Indonesian court ceremonial, marriage customs, and the like can be
traced without difficulty back to the days of Buddhist and Hindu dominance.
Page 452
The Indianization of South-East Asia was a slow and gradual process. With a
few exceptions like the Chola attacks of the eleventh century, it was
carried out by peaceful means; and in consequence, as it developed, it did
not build up a resistance to its further progress. Though its initial impact
was probably at the level of the ruling classes, Indian influences had no
difficulty in merging with indigenous cultures to create a series of
distinct South-East Asian amalgams in which it is now virtually impossible
to disentangle all the Indian from
the non-Indian. The result may not have simplified the task of the cultural
historian; but it has without doubt guaranteed the Indian heritage a place
in South-East Asian civilization from which it cannot possibly be dislodged
without the total destruction of that civilization.
Pages 452-453
Secondly, there are new theories about the reasons for the coming of Indian
influence to ancient South-East Asia and the way this influence spread.
These show a clear tendency away from a predominantly commercial or economic
interpretation of the process of Indianization (i.e. traders seen as the
main agents of the spread of Indian influence), let alone one based on the
assumption of large-scale migrations, abandoned long ago. Emphasis is now
put on brahmans or missionaries, or even on the initiative of South-East
Asians themselves, a development foreshadowed by Professor Lamb's adoption
of the term 'self-Indianization' to describe one possible mechanism of the
process. The frequent use of the words 'Sanskritization' or 'brahmanization'
in recent publications underlines this tendency. Archaeological evidence now
available also points to a slightly earlier date than that suggested by
Professor Lamb for the effective results of this Sanskritization in some
parts of South-East Asia, if not for its beginning.
Page 453
...As regards the extension of Sanskritization, which until recently was
thought not to have reached the eastern parts of South-East Asia, it has now
been shown that even the Philippines got a fair share of it, although it did
not result there in the establishment of lndian-inspired kingdoms as in the
more western and southern parts of the region.

श्री राम नवमी

SRI RAMA NAVAMI CHAITRA SHUKLA NAVAMI
The ninth day of the bright half of Chaitra

"Wherever four Hindus live, Rama and Sita will be there" so said Swami Vivekananda, one of the foremost harbingers of modern national renaissance of Bharat. The reverse also is equally true - wherever Rama and Sita live, the people there will remain and live as Hindus. Every hill and rivulet of Bharat bears the imprint of the holy feet of Rama and Sita. Sri Rama reigns supreme to this day in the hearts of our people, cutting across all barriers of province, language, caste or sect. Even the tribes living in isolated valleys and jungles have names like Mitti-Ram and Patthar-Ram. In some other tribes, every name carries the proud suffix of Ram, such as Lutthu Ram, Jagadev Ram, etc. In many northern parts of Bharat mutual greetings take the form of Jay Ramjee Ki.

Sri Rama has become so much identified with all the good and great and virile qualities of heroic manhood that expressions such as 'Us me Ram nahi hai' (there is no Rama in him) - meaning that a person has lost all manliness and worth - have become common usage. And when a Hindu quits the world stage, he is bid God-speed in his onward journey [with Ramanama satya hai or Raghupati Raghava raja Ram, patita paavana Sita Ram. In fact, the latter couplet has become the nation's bhajan par excellence.

Sri Rama's story, Ramayana, has been sung and resung in all the languages and dialects of Bharat. The tradition of writing epics centering round the saga of Rama's achievements started by Valmiki and Samskrit was continued by Tulsidas in Hindi, by Kamban in Tamil, by Ramanujan in Malayalam, by Krittivasa in Bengali and Madhav Kambali in Assamia and in fact, in almost every Bharatiya language. The tradition is being continued up to the present day. The Ramayana Darshanam of K.V. Puttappa, the national literary award of Bharat by the Jnana Peeth. The enchanting Geet Ramayana composed in Marathi by G.D. Madgulkar and set to tune by Sudhir Phadke is now thrilling the hearts of millions in Maharashtra. The various tribal groups too have sung the story of Ramayana in their dialects. Sri Rama, Lakshmana and Janaki mirror the ideals for millions of tribal boys and girls. The Khamati tribe in Arunachal Pradesh, which is Buddhist, depicts Ramayana as the story narrated by Buddha to his first disciple, Ananda, and carries the universal message of Buddha. How deeply significant that every group and sect even in distant and far-flung parts of Bharatavarsha should have found a radiant reflection of its own ideals in the form of Sri Rama!

The comparison of Sri Rama's fortitude to Himalayas and the grace and grandeur of his personality to the ocean – 'Samudra iva gaambheerye, dhairye cha Himavaan iva' - portrays how inseparably his personality has been blended into the entire national entity of Bharat. Where in lay the secret of this unique greatness in Rama's personality? He is called Maryaada-Purushottama - the great one who never deviated from the norms set by Dharma. In the eyes of the Hindu, the touchstone of human excellence is Dharma. Devotion to Dharma
came first in Rama's life and considerations of his personal joys and sorrows came last. It was his supreme commitment to putra-dharma (duty of a son) that made Rama smilingly depart to the forest for fourteen years at the bidding of his father. And this he did on the very day he was to be anointed as the future emperor of Bharat. He would not budge from the path of Dharma -
righteousness - even when his own preceptor, his parents, his brothers and the whole body of his subjects tried to dissuade him. He upheld the supremacy of Dharma in every one of his human relationships and hence became an ideal son, an ideal brother, an ideal husband, an ideal disciple. an ideal friend, an ideal kind and even an ideal foe. The one and supreme concern of Sri Rama's life was the welfare of his subjects. He would forsake everything else to uphold his kingly
duties - the Rajadharma. The night previous to his scheduled coronation, when Rama and Sita were alone in a happy mood in view of the next day's joyous occasion, Sita asked Rama, "What is that thing which hold dearest to your heart?" Rama fell serious for a moment and said, "Dear Sita, you know I love you most dearly, but I love the subjects of Ayodhya more and if their welfare demands, I would not hesitate to sacrifice even you!" The following couplet conveying this idea is cited often:
Sneham dayaam cha soukhyam cha yadi vaa Jaanakimapi,
Aaraadhanaaya lokasya munchate naasti me vyathaa.
And Sri Rama did live up to his words. When he felt that the call of his royal duties - Rajadharma - demanded the forsaking of Sita, he wavered not in carrying it out. The most crucial test came when Lakshmana violated the orders of Rama and admitted Durvasa to Rama's presence with a view to averting the destruction of Ayodhya by Durvasa's curse. Rama stuck to the law of the land and awarded death penalty to Lakshmana - one whom he loved dearer than his own life. It was with such a fiery faith that Rama followed the dictates of Dharma.

To such a one, how could power and pelf hold any fascination? When Bharata came to him in the forest and implored him to return to Ayodhya and become the emperor, Sri Rama firmly refused. Here was enacted a scene unparalleled in the annals of world history - each of the two brothers trying to out-argue the other to make him accept the emperorship of a great and mighty kingdom.

Sri Rama's role as one of the first and foremost national unifiers of Bharat is also unique and extraordinary. He embraced Guha, the forest Kind and ate in his house without the least hesitation. No sense of high or low ever touched his all-embracing love of his people.
He even enjoyed a fruit tasted and offered with devotion by Shabari, a tribal lady in the far south.
The Vanaras or the forest-dwellers too felt that Rama was their own. He endeared himself to them so intimately that they became, in fact, his chief allies against Ravana. All over Bharatavarsha, the dear, little squirrel with his three brown stripes bespeaks the devotion
to Sri Rama even among the animal world. Along with the Vanaras, a solitary squirrel had played his humble part in carrying sand for the construction of bridge to Lanka and Sri Rama's caressing of the little one on the back had left those indelible stripes for all future generations.

Sri Rama's intense adoration for the motherland has been immortalized by a legendary couplet which is playing on the lips of millions even to this day:
Janani janmabhoomischa swargaadapi garreyasi
(the mother and the motherland are to me greater than the heavens themselves).

The story of Rama is not that of a single towering personality dwarfing all others. The other characters like Sita, Lakshmana, Bharata and Hanuman too shine in their own greatness. All of them are so closely interwoven with Sri Rama's life and achievements that it is well-nigh impossible to think of any one without the other. In fact, the most popular picture of Sri Rama, i.e., of Sri Rama Pattabhisheka includes Sita, Hanuman and all his brothers. And in the bringing out of the greatness of all these partners of his life-drama, Rama's instinctive recognition of their merit and virtues played no mean part. He would always be the first to openly appreciate the unique and noble traits in others' character. Even for Kaikeyi, who was responsible for his banishment to forest, Rama had only words of kindness. And as for Ravana, the abductor of his wife, Rama's unstinted praise of his erudition and prowess at once lifts the story of Ramayana to heights unsurpassed in the annals of human history.

No wonder, the story of Sri Rama has crossed the boundaries of Bharat and inspired by many a distant people, their culture and literature. Indonesia - with Muslims forming 80% of her population - continues to adore Rama and Sita as her great cultural standard-bearers, and Ramayana as her national epic par excellence. Indonesia also prides herself in having the biggest drama stage in the world - with Ramayana as its chief attraction. And the credit goes to that country for celebrating the very first grand World Ramayana Festival some years ago.
The birthday of Sri Rama, indeed, signifies an event worth of remembrance by every one, whatever his country or race or religion, who cherishes the time honored sublime values of human culture and civilization.

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